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1a) Draw the graph
Year | Cocoa | Crops palm oil | Cotton | Total(#)
1970 | 100 | 150 | 250 | 500
1971 | 150 | 75 | 225 | 450
1972 | 250 | 200 | 150 | 600
Total = #1550m
A = 15
B =15 + 13 = 28
C = 20/3 = 6.7
D = 40 – B = 40 – 28 = 12
E 70/4 = 17.5
F = 20/5 = 4
G = 17 * 6 = 102
H = 82 – 60 = 22
I = 113/7 = 16.1
J = 19.5 * 8 = 156
2b) Draw the Graph
2c) As output rises, the AFC decreases and the curve the represents it would slope downward from left to right
3a) Similarities are :
*Both provide long-term loans to their member countries
*Both aim to promote economic development
*Both render technical and financial advice to member states
ii) One difference is;
ADB is meant for African countries only while IBRD is a global bank
3b) Benefits obtained by Nigeria from world bank are:
–Approval of $500 million to improve material and child health in the country in 2015
–Approval of a $200 million credit to support the Nigeria agricultural sector, especially small and medium scale farmers in march, 2017
7a)A tariff is a tax imposed by a government on goods and services imported from other countries that serves to increase the price and make imports less desirable, or at least less competitive, versus domestic goods and services
i )Infant Industries
ii ) National Defense
iii ) Domestic Employment
Iv ) Aggressive Trade Practices
V ) Environmental Concerns
8) Elasticity of supply is measured as the ratio of proportionate change in the quantity supplied to the proportionate change in price
i )Possibility of Substitution:
The change in supply in response to the change in price depends on the possibility of substitution of a product for others. If the market price of potato rises, resources will be shifted from there cultivation like tomato and employed in the cultivation of potato. The greater the possibility of shifting of resources to the potato cultivation, the greater is the elasticity of supply of potato.
ii )Infrastructural facilities:
The expansion of supply of a commodity also depends on the availability of productive facilities and inputs. The agricultural producer can not increase in response to the rise in price unless there is sufficient flow of fertilizers, irrigation etc. In case of industrial goods the expansion of supply is inhibited by the shortage of power, fuel and the essential raw materials.
iii )Producers response:
The elasticity of supply for a product depends on the producers’ responsiveness to the change in its price. The quantity supplied of a commodity will not change if the producers do not react positively to the increase in prices. Producers do not always increase the quantity supplied of a commodity to a rise in price.
iv )Marginal Cost:
Elasticity of supply of a commodity depends on the marginal cost of production. The elasticity of supply of a commodity would be less if the marginal cost of production goes up. In the short run, diminishing marginal returns operates as some factors are fixed. This gives rise to expansion of marginal cost of production.