Capitalism is an economic system in which capital goods are owned by private individuals or businesses. The production of goods and services is based on supply and demand in the general market (market economy), rather than through central planning (planned economy or command economy).
(i) Right of private Property
(i) Every individual has the right to accumulate property, (ii) An individual is free to use his property according to his will and (iii) Right of inheritance, i.e., after death of an individual his property goes to his successors.
(ii) Price mechanism:
Price mechanism means the free working of the forces of demand and supply to determine, prices in product market and factor market.
(iii) Profit motive
Profit is the soul of all the institutions of capitalist system. A capitalistic economy is individualistic because everyone is motivated by self-interest or private profit motive to undertake high risks.
(iv) Freedom of enterprise:
There is freedom of enterprise in a capitalist economy. It means people are free to choose their occupation, profession or business according to their will.
(v) Consumer’s sovereignty:
In a capitalist economy people have freedom of consumption. They can spend their income on consumption according to their choice.
2a) Constitutional government is defined by the existence of a constitution—which may be a legal instrument or merely a set of fixed norms or principles generally accepted as the fundamental law of the polity—that effectively controls the exercise of political power.
1. Indispensable for Administration:
Constitution is indispensable f administration of state. Administration would not be smooth, fair and efficient in the absence of a constitution. The constitution is a record of the state providing for rule of law.
2. Empowerment of state:
The constitution gives powers and strength to the state and government.
3. Establishment of values and Ideals:
Every constitution aims at establishing values and ideals. These ideals may include democracy, freedom or liberty, welfare people, equality and justice.
The ideas, values and goals of a constitution may be stated clearly or impliedly, of the goals of India is establishment of socialism. This has been clearly stated in preamble of the constitution. The interests of rich Americans have been protected b American constitution.
4. Shows Path and Direction to Government:
The constitution is blue print governance. It is the duty of government to follow this blue print. The constitution shows direction to the government. The government is likely to reach its goal if it proceeds in that direction. The constitution advises the government to avoid disputes, and also to disputes.
5. Makes Government Stable and Disciplined:
If the different organs of govern perform their functions according to the provisions of the constitution, the government will be effective and stable. The constitution has also fixed the limits of powers of to organs of government. They cannot cross these limits. As a result of this, there prevails discipline in the government. .
(i)Problem of finance
The British West African territory was a vast area and therefore to employ British personnel from the Metropolis to effectively administer it needed a lot of money to execute. The personnel had to travel from Britain and be accommodated in the colonies. It was thought that the funds needed to do this were too huge to find. That was why they use of local people to accomplish the job.
(ii).Lack of personnel
Even if the funds were there to pay the personnel, the personnel themselves were not availing themselves to be employed. The average British saw the colonies as a harsh environment where they could die of malaria or other diseases so they were unwilling to come and work there. This created the shortage of critical personnel in the colonies. The British were therefore forced to use local people, leading to the adoption of Indirect Rule.
The British could not speak the local language of the people and majority of the people could not speak English. There was therefore a communications problem. It was thought that getting a few people local people who could speak both English and the local language could solve the problem. The answer was the introduction of Indirect Rule.
(iv).Poor road network
The road network was not well developed at the time therefore the colonialists could not easily travel from place to place to proper supervision. Communication systems like telephones were also not very common back then so the only way out was to let the natives themselves do the work. This was another reason for the introduction of indirect Rule.
(v)A successful administrative system was already in place
In Northern Nigeria, where the system was first introduced, there already existed a centralized system of administration, coupled with an efficient system of tax collection. So the British just adopted what was already there and used it to achieve their purpose.
(vi)Success of the system elsewhere
By the time Lord Luggard was introducing the system of indirect rule in Northern Nigeria, the system had already been successfully practiced in India and Uganda. The experiences gathered in India and Uganda convinced Lord Luggard that Indirect Rule could thrive in West Africa.
(6) (i)Interactions among nations bring about economic advancement especially in the areas of technology.
(ii)Interaction among nations of the world can help to spread civilization and modernization.
(iii)Interaction among nations of the world can help to spread civilization and modernization.
(iv)Political interaction removes the interference of other states trying to dominate the others.
(v)The interaction among nations led to the establishment of political organizations.E.g. U.N.O,
(i)Ethnicity In Nigeria (as in many parts of Africa), political conflicts
often have ethnic coloration.
(ii)Military Involvement in Politics Nigeria’s political instability could be traced to the frequent
military involvement in politics since January 15th, 1966.
Nigeria’s political instability and other related problems are a consequence of its leadership crises. Nigerian governments are run in ways that have been regarded as far from the modern western state systems upon which they are modelled.
(iv)Interests of the International Community
Political instability in Nigeria owe much of its cause to
internal factors, however the interplay of internal and external factors especially geo-political and economic interests of the international community constantly play a significant role in undermining the very processes and institutions that are
expected to nurture democracy and to instill a sense of stability for societal development in Nigeria.
(v)Issue of Money and Politics in Nigeria
Another root of political instability is the issue of money and
politics in Nigeria. In a civilized society, money is not a determining factor for elective post